Ricinus communis, commonly known as the castorbean or castor-oil-plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The evolution of castor and its relation to other species are currently being studied using modern genetic tools. It reproduces with a mixed pollination system which favors selfing by geitonogamy but at the same time can be an out-crosser by anemophily (wind pollination) or entomophily.
In some varieties they start off dark reddish purple or bronze when young, gradually changing to a dark green, sometimes with a reddish tinge, as they mature.
The leaves of some other varieties are green practically from the start, whereas in yet others a pigment masks the green color of all the chlorophyll-bearing parts, leaves, stems and young fruit, so that they remain a dramatic purple-to-reddish-brown throughout the life of the plant.
Plants with the dark leaves can be found growing next to those with green leaves, so there is most likely only a single gene controlling the production of the pigment in some varieties.
The stems (and the spherical, spiny seed capsules) also vary in pigmentation. The fruit capsules of some varieties are showier than the flowers.
Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Ricinus communis were used in antimicrobial testing against eight pathogenic bacteria in rats and showed antimicrobial properties.
The pericarp of Ricinus showed central nervous system effects in mice at low doses. At high doses mice quickly died. A water extract of the root bark showed analgesic activity in rats.
If sown early, under glass, and kept at a temperature of around 20 °C (68 °F) until planted out, the castor oil plant can reach a height of 2–3 metres (6.6–9.8 ft) in a year. In areas prone to frost it is usually shorter, and grown as if it were an annual.
However, it can grow well outdoors in cooler climates, at least in southern England, and the leaves do not appear to suffer frost damage in sheltered spots, where it remains evergreen.
Native to tropical Africa, the Castor Bean plant has bold, palm-shaped leaves with striking red flowers. Other flower colors include green and a pink-ish red.
Different varieties of this plant grow from 5 to 15 feet tall. Used as an ornamental plant, it is sometimes grown indoors as a houseplant in large, floor containers.